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The Adobe Creative Team of designers, writers, and editors has extensive, real world knowledge of Adobe web design products. They work closely with the Adobe product development teams and Adobe’s Instructional Communications team to come up with creative, challenging, and visually appealing projects to help both new and experienced users get up to speed quickly on Adobe software products. The 15 project-based lessons in this book show you step by step everything you need to know to work in Dreamweaver.

The book also shows how to create HTML-based headings, paragraphs, lists, and tables; insert graphics and Photoshop Smart Objects; add links to text and images; apply cascading styles sheets; and customize the Dreamweaver workspace. The online companion files include all lesson files so you can work along with the book. Everything you need to master the software is included: clear explanations of each lesson, step-by-step instructions, and the project files for the students.

Classroom in a Book offers what no other book or training program does—an official training series from Adobe Systems Incorporated, developed with the support of Adobe product experts. Purchasing this book gives you access to the downloadable lesson files you need to work through the projects in the book, and to electronic book updates covering new features that Adobe releases for Creative Cloud customers.

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Verified Purchase. I found this book very difficult to follow. Since Adobe has moved to the cloud it makes some of this book difficult to follow. If there is an update to DWCC you will not find it in the book. There were some parts of lessons that would not work in the manner the book was asking and I found this to be extremely frustrating.

There were a lot of references to past versions of DW which meant nothing to me since I am new to DW – which actually makes this book more confusing. This book also asks the reader to do the same thing in many different ways which may be OK for someone comfortable with the DW layout, but not for a newbie.

If you are new to DreamWeaver this book is not a good one! Not a fan of this one. Not the publisher’s fault; however, I believe the trouble is with Adobe’s new cloud based business model. It will be next to impossible to find a good reference book now. Especially if there is another huge re-haul in their application design. I will definitely be looking for a better resource. I found this book absolutely painful! Generally speaking, I am usually quite a bright person, but for me, working with this book like wading through molasses.

I ended up feeling unbelievably stupid. The problem is that almost right from the start it introduces you — unnecessarily in my opinion — to problems and complexities, when what I really need is to start with some basic building blocks and get a little familiar with them and gain a little confidence before dealing with the headaches.

As it is, I felt like I was drowning, and stupid too! I’ve found another source to learn from, and maybe I’ll come back to this when I have more knowledge. Maybe I will find it more useful later??? Dreamweaver CC has a dramatic change of the interface versus CS6. Classroom in a book is fewer pages than its chief competitor The Missing Manual Series. As a result it is not as comprehensive as The Missing Manual. Whether you are upgrading versions or new to DW, this book is a great place to start.

Since it takes a short time to digest this book, I prefer print versions, and trade them back into Amazon when I complete a book. With that in mind, this book is worth obtaining. Just started using it, a few chapters in. Seems to flow a little better than Flash CC in a book does. Still seems like some things are taken for granted and left over from CS6. One issue, if you follow a link in the kindle version, when you return to the text book, it takes you back to the end of the book, which is inconvenient if you are in chapter 3 and it returns you to chapter Then you must search for your spot again.

Above my head as I am not computer savy as far aws making my own web page, but it does give step by step instructions that are easy to follow. I learned earlier versions of Dreamweaver and Photoshop from Classroom in a Book.

This was perfect to bring the products up to date. Great book for beginners. Unless, you have an outdated version of Adobe Dreamweaver, that you happen to be using, do not buy this book. See all reviews. Top reviews from other countries. Translate all reviews to English. First, the bad points. It is disappointing to me that I can only give this CIB 2 stars; it would have been three or four but for some really irritating errors, too many quite inexcusable omissions from the lesson files which you download from the Peachpit web site and things like the wrong picture being used in the text – all of these should have been picked up by the authors and editors.

Where timings are given for each lesson, beginners should probably double or triple these. By the time you have searched for a required file that is not where you are told to look, or looked in vain for an unfamiliar icon or panel somewhere on the screen but you are not usually told where to look , you will have spent a lot of extra time and got annoyed in the process! If you are a novice like me, you may find a number of the explanations quite ambiguous.

Despite following the instructions carefully it is sometimes possible to end up with a result that is not the same as in the book. I doubt if anyone converting from CS6 to CC would have this problem, as they should have the overall knowledge and confidence to fill in any gaps in the explanations in the CIB. Charging a premium price for a book that has not been checked properly leads one to question the quality of other current publications from Peachpit Press.

Here are some statistics: during the past 5 weeks I have sent 6 emails to Peachpit listing 54 errata in Lessons 3 to 11 inclusive. Peachpit has always replied promptly and politely, and I see that the Lesson Now for the good points. The content is fairly extensive and where the lessons are error free they are both enjoyable and instructive. I did sometimes find that they did not go far enough and cover some of the more advanced points; for that, another book or Adobe’s online material will be required.

 
 

Adobe dreamweaver cc classroom in a book pdf download free download. Adobe Dreamweaver CS6 Classroom in a Book

 
Adobe Dreamweaver Cc Classroom In A Book Pdf Free Download. The 13 Project-Based Lessons In This Book Show Users Step By Step The Key Techniques For Working. The project-based lessons in this book show you step-by-step everything you need to know in order to use Dreamweaver CC to create a professional website without.

 

Download Adobe Dreamweaver Classroom in a Book ( Release) By Jim Maivald.

 
Formatting is applied via CSS in the actual page layout. Whenever possible, rules should be simpliied to reduce the total amount of code that needs to donload downloaded. Click in the /23393.txt view window to refresh the display; it should look exactly the same.

 
 

Adobe Dreamweaver CS6 Classroom in a Book PDF Book | Free PDF Books.

 
 

Because it s often useful to understand the code underlying a web site, the book starts with primers on HTML and CSS the building blocks of website code and show the reader how to plan a web site. The reader then learns to design individual web pages, adding styled text, images, and interactive elements to make their designs attractive and engaging. Along the way, the book provides guidance for working with code, and in the end shows how to publish a finished site to the Web.

This new revised edition covers the improved Code Editor, the built-in support for the Bootstrap JavaScript library which simplifies building. Feb 8, , AM Feb 8. Download Free PDF. Jorge Sousa. A short summary of this paper. PDF Pack. People also downloaded these PDFs. People also downloaded these free PDFs. Download Download PDF. All rights reserved. If this guide is distributed with software that includes an end user license agreement, this guide, as well as the software described in it, is furnished under license and may be used or copied only in accordance with the terms of such license.

Except as permitted by any such license, no part of this guide may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Please note that the content in this guide is protected under copyright law even if it is not distributed with software that includes an end user license agreement. Adobe Systems Incorporated assumes no responsibility or liability for any errors or inaccuracies that may appear in the informational content contained in this guide. Please remember that existing artwork or images that you may want to include in your project may be protected under copyright law.

Please be sure to obtain any permission required from the copyright owner. Any references to company names in sample iles are for demonstration purposes only and are not intended to refer to any actual organization. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Government End Users. Consistent with 48 C. Government end users a only as Commercial Items and b with only those rights as are granted to all other end users pursu- ant to the terms and conditions herein.

Unpublished-rights reserved under the copyright laws of the United States. For U. Government End Users, Adobe agrees to comply with all applicable equal opportunity laws including, if appropriate, the provisions of Executive Order , as amended, Section of the Vietnam Era Veterans Readjustment Assistance Act of 38 USC , and Section of the Rehabilitation Act of , as amended, and the regulations at 41 CFR Parts through , , and For the latest on Adobe Press books, go to www.

To report errors, please send a note to errata peachpit. For information on getting permission for reprints and excerpts, contact permissions peachpit. Writer: James J. Please note that these iles are available to eBook readers via high-speed download. Please click here to go to the last page in this eBook for the download location and instructions. White lood: Yes tered trademar k or a trademar k of M a regi s ther icro i s ei sof ow s po Cor ind.

Macintosh i s inside the Lessons folder. Made in the USA. Learn product page where you can by Video is one of the most critically access updates and bonus acclaimed training products on Adobe material. Macintosh instructions. CSS formatting. Whether you create websites for a living or plan to create one for your own business, Dreamweaver ofers all the tools you need to get professional-quality results.

You can follow the book from start to inish, or complete only those lessons that correspond to your interests and needs.

Unfortunately, the TinyURLs sometimes expire over time and no longer function. Be sure you know how to use the mouse, standard menus and commands, and also how to open, save, and close iles. If you need to review these techniques, see the printed or online documentation that was included with your Microsoft Windows or Apple Macintosh operating system.

Adobe Dreamweaver CS6 software must be purchased separately; it is not included with the lesson iles that accompany this book. For system requirements, go to www. Make sure your serial number is accessible before installing the application. Each lesson has its own folder; you must copy the folders to your hard drive to complete the lessons.

It is recom- mended that you copy all lesson folders to your hard drive at once, but to conserve space on your hard disk, you can install individual folders for each lesson as you need them.

It is vitally important that you store all lesson folders within a single folder on your hard drive. Otherwise, skip to step 5. Do not copy one lesson folder into any other lesson folder. For speciic instructions, see the following section.

Each new lesson builds on previous exercises, using the iles and assets you create to develop an entire website. It is rec- ommended that you perform each lesson in sequential order to achieve a successful result and the most complete understanding of all aspects of web design.

While ideal, this method may not be a practicable scenario for every user. So, if desired, individual lessons can be accomplished using the jumpstart method described in the next section.

Once you start using the jumpstart method, you will have to use this method for all subsequent lessons. For example, if you want to jumpstart Lesson 6, you will have to jumpstart Lesson 7, too.

In many instances, essential iles needed for subsequent exercises were built in earlier lessons and exercises and may not be present in a jumpstart environment. Each folder contains inished iles, staged iles, and customized Template and Library iles, but not always a complete set of iles that may have been used or completed in other lessons.

You may think these folders contain seemingly duplicative materials. But these duplicate iles and assets, in most cases, cannot be used interchangeably in other lessons and exercises. Doing so will probably cause you to fail to achieve the goal of the exercise.

To jumpstart a lesson, copy the lesson folder to your hard drive and create a new site for that lesson using the Site Setup dialog box. Do not deine sites using subfolders of existing sites. Keep your jumpstart sites and assets in their original folders to avoid conlicts. One suggestion is to organize the lesson folders, as well as your own site folders, in a single web or sites master folder near the root of your hard drive. But avoid using the Dreamweaver application folder or any folders that contain a web server, like Apache, ColdFusion, or Internet Information Services IIS which are described more fully in Lessons 13 and Feel free to use the jumpstart method for all lessons, if you prefer.

Select the Local Info category. For a more complete description of how to set up a site in Dreamweaver, see Lesson 4. Remember, if you use the jumpstart method for all lessons, you may not end up with a complete set of site iles in any individual folder when you are inished. For this book the Designer workspace is recommended. If it is not displayed, use the pop-up menu in the Application bar to choose it.

Most of the igures in this book show the Designer workspace. When you inish the lessons in this book, experiment with various workspaces to ind the one that you prefer. Minor diferences exist between the two versions, mostly due to platform-speciic issues out of the control of the program. Most of these are simply diferences in keyboard shortcuts, how dialog boxes are displayed, and how buttons are named. Screen shots may alternate between platforms throughout the book.

Where speciic commands difer, they are noted within the text. For additional information resources, such as tips, techniques, and the latest prod- uct information, visit www.

Checking for updates Adobe periodically provides software updates. You can obtain these updates using Adobe Updater if you have an active Internet connection. Only the commands and options used in the lessons are explained in this book.

For comprehensive information about program features and tutorials, please refer to these resources: Adobe Community Help: Community Help brings together active Adobe product users, Adobe product team members, authors, and experts to give you the most useful, relevant, and up-to-date information about Adobe products. Adobe content is updated based on community feedback and contributions. You can add comments to content and forums including links to web content , publish your own content using Community Publishing, or contribute Cookbook recipes.

Find out how to contribute at www. See community. Adobe Forums: forums. Adobe TV: tv. Adobe Design Center: www. Adobe Developer Connection: www. Resources for educators: www. Find solutions for education at all levels, including free curricula that use an integrated approach to teaching Adobe software and can be used to prepare for the Adobe Certiied Associate exams.

Adobe Dreamweaver CS6 product home page: www. You can use Adobe certiication as a catalyst for getting a raise, inding a job, or promoting your expertise. If you are an ACE-level instructor, the Adobe Certiied Instructor program takes your skills to the next level and gives you access to a wide range of Adobe resources. Adobe Authorized Training Centers ofer instructor-led courses and training on Adobe products, employing only Adobe Certiied Instructors. A directory of AATCs is available at partners.

For information on the Adobe Certiied programs, visit www. Dreamweaver ofers something for everyone. Take a moment to familiarize yourself with the names of these components. Dreamweaver provides much of its power via dockable panels and toolbars you can display or hide and arrange in innumerable combinations to create your ideal workspace.

In the lesson01 folder, choose start-here. Click Open. Design view Design view focuses the Dreamweaver workspace on its WYSIWYG editor, which provides a close, but not perfect, depiction of the webpage as it would appear in a browser. To activate Design view, click the Design view button in the Document toolbar.

Design view Code view Code view focuses the Dreamweaver workspace exclusively on the HTML code and a variety of code-editing productivity tools. To access Code view, click the Code view button in the Document toolbar. Changes made in either window update in the other instantly. To access Split view, click the Split view button in the Document toolbar.

To take advantage of the expanded width of the new lat-panel displays, Dreamweaver splits the workspace vertically, by default. Split view You can also split the screen horizontally by disabling the vertical split in the view menu. You can display, hide, arrange, and dock panels at will around the screen. You can even move them to a second or third video display if you desire.

Standard panel grouping he Window menu lists all the available panels. If you do not see a speciic panel on the screen, choose it from the Window menu. A check mark appears in the menu to indicate that the panel is open.

Occasionally, one panel may lie behind another on the screen and be diicult to locate. In such situations, simply choose the desired panel in the Window menu and it will rise to the top of the stack.

To minimize a panel, double- click the tab containing the panel name. To expand the panel, double-click the tab again.

Minimizing one panel in a stack using its tab To recover more screen real estate, you can minimize panel groups or stacks down to icons by double-clicking the title bar. You can also minimize the panels to icons by clicking the double arrow icon in the panel title bar. When panels are minimized to icons, you access any of the individual panels by clicking its icon or button. Minimizing sequence to icons Floating A panel grouped with other panels can be loated separately.

To loat a panel, drag it from the group by its tab. Dragging a tab to change its position To reposition panels, groups, and stacks in the workspace, simply drag them by the title bar. Dragging a whole panel group or stack to a new position Grouping, stacking, and docking You can create custom groups by dragging one panel into another.

Release the mouse button to create the new group. To stack panels, drag the desired tab to the top or bottom of another panel. When you see the blue drop zone appear, release the mouse button.

Creating panel stacks Floating panels can be docked to the right, left, or bottom of the Dreamweaver workspace. To dock a panel, group, or stack, drag its title bar to the edge on which you wish to dock. Dreamweaver CS6 includes 11 prebuilt workspaces. To access these workspaces, choose them from the Workspace menu located in the Application bar.

Coder workspace he Designer workspace provides the optimum environment for visual designers. You will explore the capabilities of these toolbars in later exercises. You can store these conigura- tions in a custom workspace of your own naming. To save a custom workspace, create your desired coniguration, choose New Workspace from the Workspace menu in the Application bar, and then give it a custom name. Keyboard shortcuts are loaded and preserved independent of custom workspaces.

Create it yourself. Click OK. Note that the Save All command does not have an existing shortcut, although you will use this command frequently in Dreamweaver. Note the error message indicating that the keyboard combination you chose is already assigned to a command. You have created your own keyboard shortcut—one you will use in upcoming lessons.

When the HTML button is selected, you can apply heading or paragraph tags, as well as bold, italics, bullets, numbers, and indenting, among other formatting and attributes. CSS Property inspector Image properties Select an image in a webpage to access the image-based attributes and formatting control of the Property inspector. Image Property inspector table properties To access table properties, insert your cursor in a table and then click the table tag selector at the bottom of the document window.

It is the structure and substance of the Internet, although it is usually unseen except by the web designer. Without it, the web would not exist. Dreamweaver has many features that help you access, create, and edit HTML code quickly and efectively. Most people confuse the program with the technology.

Print designers are used to working with iles ending with. Designers have learned over time that opening these ile formats in a diferent program may produce unacceptable results or even damage the ile. On the other hand, the goal of the web designer is to create a webpage for display in a browser. In fact, it is a nonproprietary, plain-text language that can be edited in any text editor, in any operating system, and on any computer. Dreamweaver is an HTML editor at its core, although it is much more than this.

Where did htmL begin? He intended the technology as a means for sharing technical papers and information via the ledgling Internet that existed at the time.

He shared his HTML and browser inventions openly as an attempt to get the scien- tiic community and others to adopt it and engage in the development themselves. At the time of this writing, HTML is at version 4. It consists of around 90 tags, such as html, head, body, h1, p, and so on. When two matching tags appear this way, they are referred to as an element. Some elements are used to create page structures, others to format text, and yet others to enable interactivity and programmability.

Even though Dreamweaver obviates the need for writing most of the code manually, the ability to read and interpret HTML code is still a recommended skill for any burgeoning web designer.

And sometimes, writing the code by hand is the only way to ind an error in your webpage. Tags are enclosed within angle brackets.

Empty tags, like the horizontal rule, can be written in an abbreviated fashion, as shown above. Like an iceberg, most of the content of the actual webpage remains out of sight. Navigate to the desktop, select irstpage. Congratulations, you just created your irst webpage. Finish by typing and easy! In fact, you could add hundreds of paragraph returns between the lines and dozens of spaces between each word, and the browser display would be no diferent.

By inserting a tag here and there, you can easily create the desired text display. Entities are entered into the code using the standard diferently than tags. For example, the method for inserting a nonbreaking key keyboard. Switch to the browser and reload or refresh the page display. Because the tags and entities were added, the browser can display the desired paragraph structure and spacing. Besides creating paragraph structures and creating white space as demonstrated earlier, they can impart basic text formatting, as well as identify the relative importance of the page content.

Heading tags are automatically formatted in bold and often at a larger relative size. In this exercise, you will add a heading tag to the irst line: 1 Switch back to the text editor. Note how the text changed. It is now larger and formatted in boldface. Web designers use heading tags to identify the importance of speciic content and to help improve their site rankings on Google, Yahoo, and other search engines. A typical use of inline code would be to apply bold or italic styling to a word or to a portion of a paragraph.

In this exercise, you will apply inline formatting: 1 Switch back to the text editor. Notice how 3 Save the ile. A webpage can exist without this section, but adding any advanced functionality to this page without one would be diicult. Did you notice what changed? It may not be obvious at irst. Look at the title bar of the browser window. A well-titled page could be ranked higher than one with a bad title or one with none at all.

Keep your titles short but meaningful. Click Create. A new document window opens in Dreamweaver. Dreamweaver makes it a simple matter to format the irst line as a heading 1. Note how Dreamweaver automatically opens a drop-down list of compatible code elements. Tired of hand-coding yet? Dreamweaver ofers multiple ways to format your content. When you reached for the B and I buttons in step 14, were they missing?

When you make changes in Code view, the Property inspector occasionally needs to be refreshed before you can access the formatting commands featured there. Simply click the Refresh button, and the formatting commands will reappear.

Only two more tasks remain before your new page is complete. You could select the text within the code window and enter a new title, or you could change it using another built-in feature. Note that the new title text appears in the code, replacing the original content. Navigate to the desktop. Name the ile secondpage, and click Save. Dreamweaver adds the proper extension. You have just completed two webpages—one by hand and the other using Dreamweaver.

In both cases, you can see how HTML played a central role in the whole process. To learn more about this technology, go to www. Tags can create structures, apply formatting, identify logical content, or generate interactivity. Tags that create stand-alone structures are called block elements; the ones that perform their work within the body of another tag are called inline elements. To get the most out of Dreamweaver and your webpages, it helps to understand the nature of these elements and how they are used.

Remember, some tags can serve multiple purposes. Table 2. Creates a hyperlink. Used extensively to simulate columnar layouts. Adds semantic emphasis. Creates bold headings. Defines a numbered list. Creates a stand-alone paragraph. Displays as bold by default. Designates a table cell. Defines a bulleted list. So, what does that mean for current or up-and-coming web designers? Not much—yet. Websites and their developers change and adapt to current technologies and market realities quickly, but the underlying technologies progress at a more glacial pace.

Browser manufacturers are already supporting many of the new features of HTML5 today. Early adopters will attract developers and users who are interested in the latest and greatest, which means that older, non-HTML5-compliant brows- ers will be abandoned as these new features are implemented in the majority of popular websites. In any case, backward-compatibility to HTML 4. HTML 4. Some of these elements have been deprecated or removed altogether, and new ones have been adopted or proposed.

Many of the changes to the list revolve around supporting new technologies or dif- ferent types of content models. Some changes simply relect customs or techniques that have been popularized within the developer community since the previous version of HTML was adopted. Other changes simplify the way code is created and make it easier to write and faster to disseminate.

Almost 30 old tags have been deprecated, which means HTML5 features nearly 50 new elements in total. Take a few moments to familiarize yourself with these tags and their descriptions. Multiple sources can be defined for browsers that do not support the default resource.

It is a move- ment that has important ramiications for the future and usability of HTML and for the interoperability of websites on the Internet. At the moment, each webpage stands alone on the web.

Search engines do their best to index the content that appears on every site, but much of it is lost because of the nature and structure of old HTML code. HTML was initially designed as a presentation language. In other words, it was intended to display technical documents in a browser in a readable and predict- able manner. Was it a title or merely a subheading? HTML5 has added a signiicant number of new tags to help us add meaning to our markup.

If you are new to web design, this transition will be painless, because you have nothing to relearn and no bad habits to break. If you already have experience building webpages and applications, this book will guide you safely through some of these waters and introduce the new technologies and techniques in a logical and straightforward way. Valid HTML 4 code will remain valid for the foreseeable future. HTML5 was intended to make your task easier by allowing you to do more, with less work.

To see the complete list of HTML5 elements, check out www. To learn more about W3C, check out www. An inline element can exist within another element. The language and syntax is complex, powerful, and end- lessly adaptable; it takes time and dedication to learn and years to master.

HTML was never intended to be a design medium. Other than bold and italic, version 1. Designers resorted to various tricks to produce the desired results. For example, they used HTML tables to simu- late multicolumn and complex layouts for text and graphics, and they used images when they wanted to display typefaces other than Times or Helvetica. Using the expanded table mode in Dreamweaver top , you can see how this webpage relies on tables and images to produce the inal design bottom.

Using CSS lets you strip the HTML code down to its essential content and structure and then apply the formatting separately, so you can more easily tailor the webpage to spe- ciic applications. Click in the Design view window to update the display. Make a mistake, like typing greeen or geen, and the browser will ignore the color formatting altogether.

Note that the code contains two color: blue; attributes. In Design view, all the heading elements display in green. In Design view, the paragraph elements have changed to green. So even if you do nothing, the text will already be formatted in a certain way.

One of the essential tasks in mastering CSS is learning and understanding these defaults. If necessary, select Design view to preview the contents of the ile. Each element exhibits basic styling for traits such as size, font, and spacing, among others.

A quick look will tell you that there is no obvious styling information in the ile, but the text still displays diferent kinds of formatting. So where does it come from?

And what are the settings? HTML elements draw characteristics from multiple sources. You can ind a default style sheet at www. To save time and give you a bit of a head start, the following table pulls together some of the most common defaults. Body text Outside of a table cell, text aligns to the left and starts at the top of the page.

This default is not honored by all browsers. Fonts Text color is black. Default typeface and font is specified and supplied by the browser or by browser preferences specified by the manufacturer and then by the user. Margins Spacing external to the element box. Many HTML elements feature some form of margin spacing. Padding Spacing between the box border and the content. According to the default style sheet, no element features default padding.

Unfortunately, even diferent versions identify the browsers that visitors in your of the same browser can produce wide target audience use. IE Other 0. In January , the W3C published statistics, shown in the image above, identifying the most popular browsers. Although this chart shows the basic breakdown in the browser world, it obscures the fact that multiple versions of each browser are still being used. To make matters more complicated, although these statistics are valid for the Internet overall, the statistics for your own site may vary wildly.

Css box model he browser normally reads the HTML code, interprets its structure and format- ting, and then displays the webpage. It imposes an imaginary box around each element and then enables you to format almost every aspect of how that box and its contents are displayed. The box model is a programmatic construct imposed by CSS that enables you to format, or redeine, the default settings of any HTML element.

In most instances these boxes are invisible, and although CSS gives you the ability to format them, it does not require you to do so. Open boxmodel. Content vs. Here is identical HTML content, side by side. Formatting text You can apply CSS formatting in three ways: inline, embedded in an internal style sheet , or linked via an external style sheet.

A CSS formatting instruction is called a rule. A rule consists of two parts—a selector and one or more declarations. Applying a CSS rule is not a simple matter of selecting some text and applying a paragraph or character style, as in Adobe InDesign or Adobe Illustrator. CSS rules can afect single words, paragraphs of text, or combinations of text and objects. A single rule can afect an entire page.

A rule can be speciied to begin and end abruptly, or to format content continuously until changed by a subsequent rule. The way the selector is written HTML element determines how the styling is applied and Multiple how the rules interact with one another.

Cascade theory he cascade theory describes how the order and placement of rules in the style sheet or on the page afects the application of styling. In other words, if two rules conlict, which one wins out? Note that the code contains two CSS rules that are identical except that they apply diferent colors: red or blue.

Both rules want to format the same elements, but only one will be honored. Obviously, the second rule won. Because the second rule is the last one declared, which makes it the closest one to the actual content. You have switched the order of the rules. Both proximity and the order in which rules appear within the markup are powerful factors in how CSS is applied. When you try to determine which CSS rule will be honored and which formatting will be applied, browsers typically use the following order of hierarchy, with 3 being the most powerful.

Browser defaults. If both are present, the one declared last supersedes the earlier entry in conlicts. Inline styles within the HTML element itself.

Inheritance theory he inheritance theory describes how one rule can be afected by one or more pre- viously declared rules. Inheritance can afect rules of the same name as well as rules that format parent elements or elements that nest one inside another. In Split view, observe the CSS code. In other words, since both rules do something diferent, both will be honored.

Far from being a mistake or an unintended consequence, the ability to build rich and elaborate formatting using multiple rules is one of the most powerful and complex aspects of cascading style sheets. Redundant code should be avoided whenever possible. It adds to the size of the code as well as to the time it takes to download and process it. By using inheritance, you can create the same efect with a single rule.

All the elements remain formatted as blue Verdana. One rule is now formatting three diferent elements. You may have also noticed that the two h1 rules combined create the same styling applied by the new div rule. Click in the Design view window to refresh the display; it should look exactly the same.

Descendant theory he descendant theory describes how formatting can target a particular element based on its position relative to other elements. By constructing a selector using multiple elements, in addition to ID and class attributes, you can target the format- ting to speciic instances of text as it appears within your webpage.

Click in the Design view window to refresh the display. What happened to blue Verdana? Just move the element into the proper structure or location within the code, and it formats itself. Some refer to this as weight—giving certain rules more priority based on order, proximity, inheritance, and descendant relationships. But, at the moment, none of the rules is actually formatting the text.

In Dreamweaver, commented code usually appears grayed out. But before you do this, can you determine—based on the syntax and order of the rules—what formatting will apply to the sample text? For example, will the text appear in Times, Impact, or Verdana? Will it be blue, red, green, or orange?

So, then why does the text display in the typeface Verdana? As mentioned earlier, CSS rules may style more than one HTML element at a time, and some rules may overlap or inherit styling from one another. Can you determine which one? Can you explain why? Each of the theories described here has a role to play in how CSS styling is applied through your webpage and across your site. When the style sheet is loaded, the browser will use the following hierarchy—with number 4 being the most powerful—to determine how the styles are applied, especially when rules conlict: 1.

Cascade 2. Inheritance 3. Descendant structure 4. In such cases, Dreamweaver comes to the rescue with a fantastic feature named Code Navigator. When activated, it will display all the CSS rules that have some role in formatting an ele- ment, and it will list the order of their cascade application and speciicity. In an actual webpage, the possibility of styling conlicts grows with each new rule added. A small window appears, displaying a list of three CSS rules that apply to this heading.

When rules conlict, rules farther down in the list override rules that are higher up. Remember, elements may inherit styling from one or more rules, and default styling may be overridden by more-speciic settings. But many factors can inluence which of the rules may win. As you saw earlier, changing the order of rules can often afect how the rules work. Activate the Code Navigator. Although the rule was moved to the top of the style sheet, the display of rules did not change, because the div.

In this instance, it would win no matter where it was placed in the code, but its speciicity can easily be changed by modifying the selector. Did you notice how the styling changed? But, since this rule is the last one declared in the code, it now takes precedence in the cascade.

Is it starting to make more sense? Until that time, just remember that the rule that appears last in the Code Navigator has the most inluence on any particular element.

By default, all elements start at the top of the browser screen and appear consecu- tively one after the other from left to right, top to bottom. Block elements generate their own line or paragraph breaks; inline elements appear at the point of insertion. CSS can break all of these default constraints and let you size, format, and position elements almost any way you want them. CSS can control both the width and the height of an element, with varying degrees of success.

All speciications can be expressed in relative terms percentages, ems, or exs or in absolute terms pixels, inches, points, centimeters, and so on. By default, block elements occupy percent of the width of the browser window. Otherwise, CSS can deine element mea- surements in absolute or relative terms. Box 1 is unformatted to demonstrate how block elements display by default. Relative measurements allow the elements to automati- cally adapt to changes to the width of the browser.

For example, if you were to drag the divider between the Code view and Design view windows left or right, Box 2 would always display at half the width of the Design view window. Element widths set to percentages will adapt automatically to changes in the browser window, maintaining their relative dimen- sion within the space. Box 3 is formatted to a ixed measurement of pixels.

It will maintain this width no matter what happens to the size of the browser screen. It is formatted to a width of 10 ems. In other words, use a large font and the em gets big- ger; use a small font and the em gets smaller.

It even changes based on whether the font is a condensed or expanded face. Widths speciied in ems allow your page ele- ments to adapt to user requests for increases or decreases in font size. Unfortunately, the reality is not so simple. Past browser support for the height property was not consistent or reliable. But measurements in percentages require a small workaround, or hack, to make most browsers honor them.

Box 1 demonstrates the default behavior of block elements; it takes up only as much height as the content contained within it requires. Box 2 is set to a height of pixels; it will remain at this ixed height regardless of changes to the screen size or orientation. Box 3 is set to a height of 10 ems. So far, so good. Adding the height property to the root elements of your webpage gives the browser the information it needs to calculate any element heights set in percentages.

By default, it is intended to be a luid speciication that allows an element to automatically adapt to the space requirements of its content. Borders and backgrounds Each element can feature four individually formatted borders top, bottom, left, and right. As you can see, borders can be used for more than just creating boxes. Here you see them used as graphical accents to paragraphs and even to simulate a three- dimensional button efect. If both are used, the image will appear above, or in front of, the color.

If the image ills the visible space or is set to repeat, it may obscure the color entirely. Box 1 displays the default HTML transparent background. Box 2 depicts a back- ground with a solid color. Box 3 shows a background image that repeats in both directions along the x-axis and y-axis. Box 4 also shows a background image, but its transparency and drop-shadow efect allow you to see the background color around the edges of the image. Be sure to fully test any background treatments. In some applications, CSS back- ground speciications are not fully supported or are supported inconsistently.

All the elements display the default HTML formatting for margins and padding. Borders have been applied to all the elements to make the spacing efects easier to see. Type padding: 30px;. Since padding is applied within the element boundaries, it will combine with margin settings to afect the overall spacing that appears between elements. Many designers abhor these default speciications, especially because they may vary among browsers. Using zero margins may be a bit extreme for your own tastes, but you get the picture.

As you become more comfortable with CSS and webpage design, you can develop your own default speciications and implement them in this way. CSS can break all these default constraints and let you place elements almost anywhere you want them to be. As with other object formatting, positioning can be speciied in relative terms such as left, right, center, and so on or by absolute coordinates measured in pixels, inches, centimeters, or other standard measure- ment systems.

Using CSS, you can even layer one element above or below another to create amazing graphical efects. By using positioning commands carefully, you can create a variety of page layouts, including popular multicolumn designs. Using CSS, you can control the placement of these elements.

Box 1 displays on a line of its own, in the default manner. Box 2 appears on the next line, aligned to the left side of the screen as speciied. Box 3 appears on the right side of the screen, but on the same line as Box 2. In subsequent lessons, you will learn how to combine diferent loat attributes with various width, height, margin, and padding settings to create sophisticated layouts for your website designs.

Unfortunately, as powerful as CSS positioning seems to be, it is the one aspect of CSS that is most prone to misinterpretation by the various browsers in use today. Commands and formatting that work ine in one browser can be translated difer- ently or totally ignored—with tragic results—in another. In fact, formatting that works ine on one page of your website can fail on another page containing a difer- ent mix of code elements. By taking advantage of the cascade, inheritance, descendant, and speciicity theo- ries, you can target formatting to almost any element anywhere on a webpage.

But CSS ofers a few more ways to optimize and customize the formatting even further. Class attributes may be applied to any number of elements on a page, whereas P Note: Dreamweaver will warn you when ID attributes may appear only once.

Class and ID names can be a single word, an abbreviation, any combination of letters and numbers, or almost anything, but they may not start with a number or contain spaces.

To declare a CSS class selector, insert a period before the name within the style sheet, like this:. In the past, many web designers used ID attributes to point at speciic components within the page, such as the header, the footer, or articles.

With the advent of HTML5 elements—header, footer, aside, article, and so on—the use of ID and class attributes for this purpose is less neces- sary than it was.

But IDs can still be used to identify speciic text elements, images, and tables to assist you in building powerful hypertext navigation within your page and site. Technologies and standards are evolving and changing constantly. Although these standards have not been oicially adopted, browser vendors are already implementing many of their features and techniques.

As you work through the upcoming lessons, you will be introduced to many of these new and exciting techniques and actually implement many of the more stable HTML5 and CSS3 features within your own sample pages. Css3 features and efects here are over two dozen new features in CSS3. Many are ready now and have been implemented in all the modern browsers; others are still experimental and are sup- ported less fully.

Some of the new CSS3 features have not been standardized, and certain browsers may not recognize the default markup generated by Dreamweaver. In these instances, you may have to include speciic vendor commands to make them work properly. If you do nothing, HTML elements will feature no formatting or structure. CSS3 features are all experimental, and you should not use them at all.

Industry best practices recommend using CSS-based formatting instead. Even if you do nothing, many HTML elements feature built-in formatting. Many CSS3 features are already supported by modern browsers and can be used today. What is the purpose of the website? Will the website sell or support a product or service? Is your site for entertainment or games?

Will you provide information or news? Will you need a shopping cart or database? Do you need to accept credit card payments or electronic transfers? Who is the customer? Are the customers adults, children, seniors, professionals, hobbyists, men, women, everyone? Knowing who your market will be is vital to the overall design and func- tionality of your site. A site intended for children probably needs more animation, interactivity, and bright engaging colors. Adults will want serious content and in- depth analysis.

Seniors may need larger type and other accessibility enhancements. A good irst step is to check out the competition. Is there an existing website Could two sites be more performing the same service or selling the same product? Are they successful? Look and Yahoo? Yet they both perform the same at Google and Yahoo. But, just as with a brick-and-mortar business, your online customers can come to you in a variety of ways.

For example, are they accessing your site on a desktop computer, laptop, tablet, or cell phone? Are they using high-speed Internet, wireless, or dial-up service?

What browser do they most like to use, and what is the size and resolution of the display? Dial-up and cell phone users may not want to see a lot of graphics or video, while users with large lat-panel displays and high-speed connec- tions may demand as much bang and sizzle as you can send at them. So, where do you get this information? But a lot of it is actually available on the Internet itself.

In , they started to track the usage of mobile devices on the Internet. If you are redesigning an existing site, your web hosting service itself may provide valuable statistics on historical traic patterns and even the visitors themselves. If you host your own site, third-party tools are available, like Google Analytics and Adobe Omniture, which you can incorporate into your code to do the tracking for you for free or for a small fee.

When you boil down all the statistics, this is what you will ind as of the begin- ning of Windows 80 to 90 percent dominates the Internet, with most users divided almost equally between Firefox 37 percent and Google Chrome 33 per- cent , with various versions of Internet Explorer 22 percent taking third position.

Designing a website that can look good and work efectively for both lat-panel displays and cell phones is a tall order. Each day, more people are using cell phones and other mobile devices to access the Internet.

Some users may use them now to access the Internet more fre- quently than they use desktop computers. For one thing, cell phone screens are a fraction of the size of even the smallest lat-panel display. How do you cram a two- or three-column page design into a meager to pixels? Keep all these statistics in mind as you go through the process of designing your site. A page carefully designed for a typical lat panel is basically useless on a cell phone. Your customers come from a broad demographic including all ages and education levels.

Your marketing research indicates that most of your customers use desktop com- puters or laptops, connecting via high-speed Internet services, but that you can expect 10 to 20 percent of your visitors via cell phone and other mobile devices.

Creating thumbnails Many web designers start by drawing thumbnails with pencil and paper. Draw lines between the thumbnails showing how your navigation will connect them. Thumbnails list the pages that need to be built and how they are connected to each other. Most sites are divided into levels. Typically, the irst level includes all the pages in your main navigation menu, the ones a visitor can reach directly from the home page.

Make a list of compo- nents you want on each page, such as headers and footers, navigation, and areas for the main content and the sidebars if any. What other factors do you need to consider? Do you have a company logo, business identity, graphic imagery, or color scheme you want to accent?

Do you have publications, brochures, or current advertising campaigns you want to emulate? It helps to gather them all in one place so you can see everything all at once on a desk or conference table.

Most designers settle on one basic page design that is a compromise between lexibility and sizzle. Some site designs may naturally lean toward using more than one basic layout.

But resist the urge to design each page separately. Using a consistent page design, or template, lends a sense of professionalism and gives conidence to your visitor. Wireframes allow you to experiment with page designs quickly and eas- ily without wasting time with code. Where you put a component can drasti- cally afect its impact and usefulness.

Are they on a inch lat panel or a 2-inch cell phone? Do you want to waste this position by slapping the company logo here? Or, make the site more useful by slipping in a navigation menu? Do you go for design sizzle, workable utility, or something in between? Creating wireframes After you pick the winning design, wireframing is a fast way to work out the structure of each page in the site. A wireframe is like a thumbnail, but bigger, that sketches out each page and ills in more details about the components, such as actual link names and main headings.

The wireframe for the inal design should identify the compo- nents and feature markup for content, color, and dimensions. Such mockups are as good as seeing the real thing but may take only a fraction of the time to produce.

Deining a Dreamweaver site From this point forward, the lessons in this book function within a Dreamweaver site.

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